2015年8月27日 星期四

法與聖律 Dharma and precepts

☼ 漢英對照 ☞ 《佛遺教經》The Buddha's Last Bequest【最正確的英文譯本】

《佛遺教經》The Buddha's Last Bequest【最正確的英文譯本】

    The Buddha's Last Bequest.
    (The Discourse of the Teaching Bequeathed by the Buddha)
    Translated into Chinese by the Indian Acariya Kumarajiva,
    sometime prior to the year 956 Buddhist Era (鳩摩羅什 AD 344-413).
    Translated from the Chinese Tipitaka by Bhikkhu Khantipalo.
    Buddhist Publication Society Kandy, Sri Lanka.
    The Wheel Publication No. 112.
    Copyright © Buddhist Publication Society, 1967.
    For free distribution.

    《佛遺教經》The Buddha's Last Bequest【目錄】 (Contents)

    ♨ 第一篇 說法緣起 Occasion

    ♨ 第二篇 戒不壞信 On the Cultivation of Virtue in this World
    第一品 ✩ 培養戒德 Exhortation on Keeping the Precepts
    第二品 ✩ 攝根護心 Exhortation on the Control of Mind and Body
    第三品 ✩ 飲食知度 Exhortation on the Moderate Use of Food
    第四品 ✩ 遠離惛眠──受持警寤 Exhortation on Sleeping
    第五品 ✩ 捨五蓋──瞋恚、惡作 Exhortation on Refraining from Anger and Ill-will
    第六品 ✩ 捨掉舉──離憍慢 Exhortation on Refraining from Arrogance and Contempt
    第七品 ✩ 捨貪慾──離諂曲 Exhortation on Flattery

    ♨ 第三篇 僧不壞信 On the Advantages for Great Men Gone Forth to Homelessness
    第一品 ✩ 少欲功德 The Virtue of Few Wishes
    第二品 ✩ 知足無惱 The Virtue of Contentment
    第三品 ✩ 隱逸美德 The Virtue of Seclusion
    第四品 ✩ 正精進──滴水穿石 The virtue of energetic striving
    第五品 ✩ 正念正知 The Virtue of Attentiveness
    第六品 ✩ 足四禪──身行寂靜 The Virtue of ‘Collectedness’ (samadhi)
    第七品 ✩ 無後有──慧善解脫 The Virtue of Wisdom
    第八品 ✩ 捨自諦──離戲論 The Virtue of Restraint from Idle Talk

    ♨ 第四篇 佛不壞信──當自精進 Self Exertion
    ♨ 第五篇 法不壞信──四諦勿疑 On Clearing Up All Doubts

    Namo Tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammā Sambuddhassa.
    Refuge in the Buddha, Arhat, Supreme Enlightenment.

    ✩ 諸行皆是壞滅之法,應自精進不放逸。
    Decay is inherent in all component things.
    Work out your salvation with diligence!

    ✩ 當勤精進,早求解脫;以智慧明,滅諸痴暗。
    But do strive diligently, and quickly seek out freedom.
    With the light of perfect wisdom, destroy the darkness of ignorance!

    ✩ 啊!佛陀的智慧 What! Buddha's wisdom

    Seems, everyone... enjoy published!
    Has, himself... super views.
    Seems everyone... have, better than Buddha's wisdom!
    However, what is... "the original teachings of Buddha?"
    Do not know, not understand, and no time to understand.
    Because they are…
    Busy with their own... "I know, I see… ?"

    ✩ 三 皈 依 Tisaraṇa / Three Refuges

    I refuge in the Buddha, Nibbana, no recession!
    我皈依──正法律 ,具足慚與愧!
    I refuge in the Dhamma, Be ashamed and reflection!
    I refuge in the Sangha, Ardent to learning respectfully!

    ♨ 第一篇 說法緣起 Occasion

    [1] 釋迦牟尼佛,初轉法輪,度阿若憍陳如;最後說法,度須跋陀羅。
    [1] When Lord Buddha, sage of the Sakyas, first turned the Wheel of the Dhamma, Venerable Aññakondañña crossed over (the ocean of birth and death); while as a result of his last Discourse Venerable Subhadda crossed over likewise.
    [2] 所應度者,皆已度訖;於娑羅雙樹間,將入涅槃。
    [2] All those who were (ready) to cross over, them he (helped) to cross over. When about to attain Final Nibbana (涅槃 Nirvana), he was lying between the twin sala trees in the middle watch of the night.
    [3] 是時中夜,寂然無聲,為諸弟子,略說法要:
    [3] No sound disturbed the calm and silence; then, for the sake of the disciples (弟子 savaka), he spoke briefly on the essentials of Dhamma:

    ♨ 第二篇 戒不壞信 On the Cultivation of Virtue in this World

    第一品 ✩ 培養戒德 Exhortation on Keeping the Precepts

    [4] 「汝等比丘!於我滅後,當尊重、珍敬,波羅提木叉。
    [4] “O Bhikkhus, after my Parinibbana (圓寂 Pari-Nirvana) you should reverence and honour the precepts of the Patimokkha.
    [5] 如暗遇明,貧人得寶。
    [5] Treat them as a light which you have discovered in the dark, or as a poor man would treat a treasure found by him.
    [6] 當知此,則是,汝等大師,若我住世,無異此也!
    [6] You should know that they are your chief guide and there should be no difference (in your observance of them) from when I yet remained in the world.
    [7] 持淨戒者,不得,販賣貿易、安置田宅、畜養人民、奴婢、畜生;
    [7] If you would maintain in purity the precepts, you should not give yourselves over to buying, selling or barter. You should not covet fields or buildings, nor accumulate servants, attendants or animals.
    [8] 一切種植,及諸財寶,皆當遠離,如避火坑;
    [8] You should flee from all sorts of property and wealth as you would avoid a fire or a pit.
    [9] 不得,斬伐草木、墾土掘地。
    [9] You should not cut down grass or trees, neither break new soil nor plough the earth.
    [10] 合和湯藥、占相吉凶、仰觀星宿、推步盈虛、曆數算計,皆所不應。
    [10] Nor may you compound medicines, practise divination or sorcery according to the position of the stars, cast horoscopes by the waxing and waning of the moon, nor reckon days of good fortune. All these are things which are improper (for a Bhikkhu).
    [11] 節身時食、清淨自活;
    [11] Conduct yourselves in purity, eating only at the proper times and living your lives in purity and solitude.
    [12] 不得,參預世事、通致使命;咒術仙藥、結好貴人、親厚媟慢,皆不應作。
    [12] You should not concern yourselves with worldly affairs, nor yet circulate rumours. You should not mumble incantations, mix magic potions, nor bind yourselves in friendship to powerful persons, showing to them and the rich (special) friendliness while treating with contempt those lacking (in worldly wealth, power and so forth). All such things are not to be done!
    [13] 當自端心、正念求度;
    [13] You should seek, with a steadfast mind, and with Right Mindfulness (正念 samma sati), for Enlightenment.
    [14] 不得,包藏瑕疵、顯異惑眾;
    [14] Neither conceal your faults (within), nor work wonders (without), thereby leading (yourself and) other people astray.
    [15] 於四供養,知量知足,趣得供事,不應蓄積。
    [15] As to the four offerings, be content with them, knowing what is sufficient. Receive them when offered but do not hoard them. This, briefly, is what is meant by observing the precepts.
    [16] 此則略說,持戒之相。
    [16] These precepts are fundamental,
    [17] 戒是正順、解脫之本,故名:『波羅提木叉!』
    [17] (to a life based on Dhamma-Vinaya) and accord exactly with freedom (解脫 mokkha), and so are called the Patimokkha.
    [18] 因依此戒,得生諸禪定,及滅苦智慧。
    [18] By relying on them you may attain all levels of collectedness (禪定 samadhi) and likewise the knowledge of the extinction of dukkha (苦 unsatisfactoriness).
    [19] 是故比丘,當持淨戒,勿令毀缺。
    [19] It is for this reason, Bhikkhus, that you should always maintain the precepts in purity and never break them.
    [20] 若人,能持淨戒,是則,能有善法;
    [20] If you can keep these precepts pure you possess an excellent (善法 method for the attainment of Enlightenment),
    [21] 若無淨戒,諸善功德,皆不得生。
    [21] but if you do not do so, no merit of any kind will accrue to you.
    [22] 是以當知,戒為:『第一安穩,功德住處!』
    [22] You ought to know for this reason that the precepts are the chief dwelling-place of the merit which results in both body and mind (心 citta) being at rest.

    第二品 ✩ 攝根護心 Exhortation on the Control of Mind and Body

    [23] 汝等比丘!已能住戒,當制五根,勿令放逸,入於五欲。
    [23] O Bhikkhus, if you are able already to keep within the precepts, you must next control the five senses, not permitting the entry of the five sense desires by your unrestraint,
    [24] 譬如,牧牛之人,執杖視之,不令縱逸,犯人苗稼。
    [24] just as a cowherd by taking and showing his stick prevents cows from entering another's field, ripe for the harvest.
    [25] 若縱五根,非唯五欲,將無涯畔,不可制也;
    [25] In an evil-doer indulging the five senses, his five desires will not only exceed all bounds but will become uncontrollable,
    [26] 亦如惡馬,不以轡制,將當牽人,墜於坑埳。
    [26] just as a wild horse unchecked by the bridle must soon drag the man leading it, into a pit.
    [27] 如被賊劫,苦止一世;
    [27] If a man be robbed, his sorrow does not extend beyond the period of his life,
    [28] 五根賊禍,殃及累世。
    [28] but the evil of that robber (五根賊禍 sense desires) and the depredations caused by him bring calamities extending over many lives,
    [29] 為害甚重,不可不慎!
    [29] creating very great dukkha. You should control yourselves!
    [30] 是故智者,制而不隨,持之如賊,不令縱逸;
    [30] Hence, wise men control themselves and do not indulge their senses but guard them like robbers who must not be allowed freedom from restraint.
    [31] 假令縱之,皆亦不久,見其磨滅。
    [31] If you do allow them freedom from restraint, before long you will be destroyed by Mara (Demon).
    [32] 此五根者,心為其主,是故汝等,當好制心。
    [32] The mind is the lord of the five senses and for this reason you should well control the mind.
    [33] 心之可畏,甚於毒蛇、惡獸、怨賊、大火越逸,未足喻也。
    [33] Indeed, you ought to fear indulgence of the mind's (desires) more than poisonous snakes, savage beasts, dangerous robbers or fierce conflagrations. No simile is strong enough to illustrate (this danger).
    [34] 譬如有人,手執蜜器,動轉輕躁,但觀於蜜,不見深坑。
    [34] But think of a man carrying a jar of honey who, as he goes, heeds only the honey and is unaware of a deep pit. (in his path!)
    [35] 譬如,狂象無鉤,猿猴得樹,騰躍踔躑,難可禁制。
    [35] Or think of a mad elephant unrestrained by shackles! Again, consider a monkey who after climbing a tree cannot, except with difficulty, be controlled! Such as these would be difficult to check:
    [36] 當急挫之,無令放逸!
    [36] therefore hasten to control your desires and do not let them go unrestrained!
    [37] 縱此心者,喪人善事;
    [37] Indulge the mind (with its desires) and you lose the benefit of being born a man;
    [38] 制之一處,無事不辦。
    [38] check it completely and there is nothing you will be unable to accomplish.
    [39] 是故比丘,當勤精進,折伏汝心!
    [39] That is the reason, O Bhikkhus, why you should strive hard to subdue your minds.

    第三品 ✩ 飲食知度 Exhortation on the Moderate Use of Food

    [40] 汝等比丘!受諸飲食,當如服藥,於好於惡,勿生增減。
    [40] O Bhikkhus, in receiving all sorts of food and drink, you should regard them as though you are taking medicine. Whether they be good or bad, do not accept or reject them according to your likes and dislikes;
    [41] 趣得支身,以除饑渴;
    [41] just use them to support your bodies, thereby staying free from hunger and thirst.
    [42] 如蜂採華,但取其味,不損色香。
    [42] As bees while foraging among flowers extract only the nectar, without harming their colour and scent,
    [43] 比丘亦爾,受人供養,趣自除惱,無得多求,壞其善心。
    [43] just so, O Bhikkhus, should you do (when collecting alms-food). Accept just enough of what people offer to you, for the avoidance of distress. But do not ask for much and thereby spoil the goodness of their hearts,
    [44] 譬如智者,籌量牛力,所堪多少?不令過分,以竭其力!
    [44] just as the wise man, having estimated the strength of his ox, does not wear out its strength by overloading.

    第四品 ✩ 遠離惛眠──受持警寤 Exhortation on Sleeping

    [45] 汝等比丘!晝則勤心,修習善法,無令失時;
    [45] O Bhikkhus, by day you should practise good Dhamma and not allow yourselves to waste time.
    [46] 初夜、後夜,亦勿有廢;中夜誦經,以自消息。
    [46] In the early evening and late at night do not cease to make an effort, while in the middle of the night you should chant the Suttas to make yourselves better informed.
    [47] 無以,睡眠因緣,令一生空過,無所得也!
    [47] Do not allow yourselves to pass your lives in vain and fruitlessly, on account of sleep.
    [48] 當念,無常之火,燒諸世間,早求自度,勿睡眠也!
    [48] You should envisage the world as being consumed by a great fire and quickly determine to save yourselves from it. Do not (spend much time in) sleep!
    [49] 諸煩惱賊,常伺殺人,甚於怨家,安可睡眠,不自警寤?
    [49] The robbers of the three afflictions (貪 greed、瞋 aversion、痴 delusion) forever lie in wait to kill men so that (your danger) is even greater than in a household rent by hatred. So, fearful, how can you sleep and not arouse yourselves?
    [50] 煩惱毒蛇,睡在汝心,譬如黑蚖,在汝室睡;
    [50] These afflictions are a poisonous snake asleep in your own hearts. They are like a black cobra sleeping in your room.
    [51] 當以,持戒之鉤,早摒除之。
    [51] Destroy the snake quickly with the sharp spear of keeping the precepts!
    [52] 睡蛇既出,乃可安眠;
    [52] Only when that dormant snake has been driven away will you be able to rest peacefully.
    [53] 不出而眠,是無慚人!
    [53] If you sleep, not having driven it away, you are men without shame (無慚 a-hiri).
    [54] 慚恥之服,於諸莊嚴,最為第一。
    [54] The clothing of shame (慚恥 hiri), among all ornaments, is the very best.
    [55] 慚如鐵鉤,能制人非法;
    [55] Shame can also be compared to an iron goad that can control all human wrong-doing;
    [56] 是故,常當慚恥,無得暫替。
    [56] for which reason, O Bhikkhus, you should always feel ashamed of unskilful actions (暫替 akusalakamma). You should not be without it even for a moment,
    [57] 若離慚恥,則失諸功德。
    [57] for if you are parted from shame, all merits will be lost to you.
    [58] 有愧之人,則有善法;
    [58] He who has fear of blame (有愧 ottappa) has that which is good,
    [59] 若無愧者,與諸禽獸,無相異也。
    [59] while he who has no fear of blame (無愧 anottappa) is not different from the birds and beasts.

    第五品 ✩ 捨五蓋──瞋恚、惡作 Exhortation on Refraining from Anger and Ill-will

    [60] 汝等比丘!若有人來,節節肢解,當自攝心,無令瞋恨;
    [60] O Bhikkhus, if there were one who came and dismembered you joint by joint, you should not hate him but rather include him in your heart (攝心 of friendliness—metta).
    [61] 亦當護口,勿出惡言。
    [61] Besides, you should guard your speech and refrain from reviling him.
    [62] 若縱恚心,則自妨道,失功德利。
    [62] If you succumb to thoughts of hatred you block your own (progress in 道) Dhamma and lose the benefits of (accumulated 功德) merits.
    [63] 忍之為德,持戒、苦行,所不能及。
    [63] Patience (忍 khanti) is a virtue which cannot be equalled even by keeping the precepts and (undertaking 苦行) the austere practices.
    [64] 能行忍者,乃可名為:『有力大人!』
    [64] Whosoever is able to practise patience can be truly called a great and strong man,
    [65] 若其不能,歡喜忍受,惡罵之毒,如飲甘露者,不名:『入道、智慧人也!』
    [65] but he who is unable to endure abuse as happily as though he were drinking ambrosia, cannot be called one who has attained knowledge of Dhamma.
    [66] 所以者何?瞋恚之害,則破諸善法,壞好名聞,今世、後世,人不喜見。
    [66] Why is this? The harm caused by anger and resentment shatters all your goodness and so (greatly) spoils your good name that neither present nor future generations of men will wish to hear it.
    [67] 當知瞋心,甚於猛火,常當防護,無令得入。
    [67] You should know that angry thoughts are more terrible than a great fire. So continually guard yourselves against them and do not let them gain entrance.
    [68] 劫功德賊,無過瞋恚。
    [68] Among the three robbers (the afflictions), none steals merit more than anger and resentment.
    [69] 白衣受欲,非行道人,無法自制,瞋猶可恕;
    [69] Those householders dressed in white who have desires and practise little Dhamma, in them, having no way of controlling themselves, anger may still be excusable;
    [70] 出家行道,無慾之人,而懷瞋恚,甚不可也!
    [70] but among those who become homeless (出家 pabbajita) because they wish to practise Dhamma and to abandon desire, the harbouring of anger and resentment is scarcely to be expected,
    [71] 譬如,清冷雲中,霹靂起火,非所應也。
    [71] just as one does not look for thunder or lightning from a translucent, filmy cloud.

    第六品 ✩ 捨掉舉──離憍慢 Exhortation on Refraining from Arrogance and Contempt

    [72] 汝等比丘!當自摸頭,已捨飾好,著壞色衣,執持應器,以乞自活,自見如是;
    [72] O Bhikkhus, rubbing your heads you should deeply consider yourselves in this way: ‘It is good that I have discarded personal adornment. I wear the russet robe of patches and carry a bowl with which to sustain life.’
    [73] 若起憍慢,當疾滅之!
    [73] When thoughts of arrogance or contempt arise, you must quickly destroy them by regarding yourselves in this way.
    [74] 增長憍慢,尚非世俗、白衣所宜,何況出家、入道之人:
    [74] The growth of arrogance and contempt is not proper among those wearing white and living the household life:
    [75] 『為解脫故,自降其身,而行乞耶?』
    [75] how much less so for you, gone forth to homelessness! You should subdue your bodies, collecting food (行乞 in your bowls) for the sake of Dhamma-practice to realize Enlightenment.

    第七品 ✩ 捨貪慾──離諂曲 Exhortation on Flattery

    [76] 汝等比丘!諂曲之心,與道相違;是故宜應,質直其心。
    [76] O Bhikkhus, a mind inclined to flattery is incompatible with Dhamma; therefore, it is right to examine and correct such a mind.
    [77] 當知諂曲,但為欺誑,入道之人,則無是處;
    [77] You should know that flattery is nothing but deception, so that those who have entered the way of Dhamma practice have no use for it.
    [78] 是故汝等,宜當端心,以質直為本。
    [78] For this reason, be sure to examine and correct the errors of the mind, for to do so is fundamental.

    ♨ 第三篇 僧不壞信 On the Advantages for Great Men Gone Forth to Homelessness

    第一品 ✩ 少欲功德 The Virtue of Few Wishes

    [79] 汝等比丘!當知,多欲之人,多求利故,苦惱亦多;
    [79] O Bhikkhus, you should know that those having many desires, by reason of their desire for selfish profit, experience much dukkha.
    [80] 少欲之人,無求無欲,則無此患。
    [80] Those with few desires, neither desiring nor seeking anything, do not therefore experience such dukkha.
    [81] 直爾少欲,尚宜修習;何況少欲,能生諸功德!
    [81] Straight-away lessen your desires! Further, in order to obtain all kinds of merit you should practise ‘fewness’ of desires.
    [82] 少欲之人,則無諂曲,以求人意;亦復不為,諸根所牽。
    [82] Those who desire little, do not indulge in flattery so as to sway another's mind, nor are they led by their desires.
    [83] 行少欲者,心則坦然,無所憂畏,觸事有餘,常無不足。
    [83] Those who practise the diminishing of desires thus achieve a mind of contentment having no cause for either grief or fear, and finding the things they receive are sufficient, never suffer from want.
    [84] 有少欲者,則有涅槃,是名:『少欲!』
    [84] From this cause indeed, (comes) Nibbana. Such is the meaning of ‘having few wishes.’

    第二品 ✩ 知足無惱 The Virtue of Contentment.

    [85] 汝等比丘!若欲,脫諸苦惱,當觀知足。
    [85] O Bhikkhus, if you wish to escape from all kinds of dukkha, you must see that you are contented.
    [86] 知足之法,即是富樂、安穩之處。
    [86] The virtue of contentment is the basis of abundance, happiness, peace and seclusion.
    [87] 知足之人,雖臥地上,猶為安樂;
    [87] Those who are contented are happy even though they have to sleep on the ground.
    [88] 不知足者,雖處天堂,亦不稱意。
    [88] Those who are not contented would not be so though they lived in celestial mansions.
    [89] 不知足者,雖富而貧;知足之人,雖貧而富。
    [89] Such people feel poor even though they are rich, while those who are contented are rich even in poverty.
    [90] 不知足者,常為,五欲所牽;
    [90] The former are constantly led by their five desires,
    [91] 為知足者,之所憐愍,是名:『知足!』
    [91] and are greatly pitied by the contented. Such is the meaning of ‘contentment.’

    第三品 ✩ 隱逸美德 The Virtue of Seclusion

    [92] 汝等比丘!欲求寂靜,無為安樂,當離憒鬧,獨處閒居。
    [92] O Bhikkhus, seek the joy of quietness and passivity. Avoid confusion and noise and dwell alone in secluded places.
    [93] 靜處之人,帝釋諸天,所共敬重;
    [93] Those who dwell in solitude are worshipped with reverence by Sakka and all celestials.
    [94] 是故,當捨:『己眾、他眾!』
    [94] This is why you should leave your own and other clans to live alone in quiet places,
    [95] 空閒獨處,思滅苦本。
    [95] reflecting (to develop insight) upon dukkha, its arising and its cessation.
    [96] 若樂眾者,則受眾惱;
    [96] Those who rejoice in the pleasures of company must bear as well the pains of company,
    [97] 譬如大樹,眾鳥集之,則有,枯折之患。
    [97] as when many birds flock to a great tree it may wither and collapse.
    [98] 世間縛者,沒於眾苦;
    [98] Attachment to worldly things immerses one in the dukkha experienced by all men,
    [99] 譬如,老象溺泥,不能自出,是名:『遠離!』
    [99] like an old elephant bogged down in a swamp from which he cannot extricate himself. Such is the meaning of ‘secluding oneself.’

    第四品 ✩ 正精進──滴水穿石 The virtue of energetic striving

    [100] 汝等比丘!若勤精進,則事無難者;是故汝等,當勤精進。
    [100] O Bhikkhus, if you strive diligently, nothing will be difficult for you.
    [101] 譬如,小水長流,則能穿石。
    [101] As a little water constantly trickling can bore a hole through a rock, so must you always strive energetically.
    [102] 若行者之心,數數懈廢;
    [102] If the mind of a disciple (行者 savaka) becomes idle and inattentive,
    [103] 譬如鑽火,未熱而息,雖欲得火,火難可得,是名:『精進!』
    [103] he will resemble one who tries to make fire by friction but rests before the heat is sufficient. However much he desires fire, he cannot (make even a spark). Such is the meaning of ‘energetic striving.’

    第五品 ✩ 正念正知 The Virtue of Attentiveness

    [104] 汝等比丘!求善知識,求善護助,無如不忘念。
    [104] O Bhikkhus, seek out a noble friend (善知識 kalyana-mitta). Seek him who will best (be able to) aid you (in developing) the unexcelled and unbroken attention.
    [105] 若有,不忘念者,諸煩惱賊,則不能入;
    [105] If you are attentive, none of the (諸煩惱賊 three) robbers, the afflictions, can enter your mind.
    [106] 是故汝等,常當攝念在心。
    [106] That is why you must keep your mind in a state of constant attention,
    [107] 若失念者,則失諸功德;若念力堅強,雖入,五欲賊中,不為所害。
    [107] for by loss of attention you lose all merits. If your power of attention is very great, though you fall among (conditions favouring 五欲賊中) the five robbers of sense-desire, you will not be harmed by them,
    [108] 譬如,著鎧入陣,則無所畏,是名:『不忘念!』
    [108] just as a warrior entering a battle well-covered by armour has nothing to fear. Such is the meaning of ‘unbroken attention.’

    第六品 ✩ 足四禪──身行寂靜 The Virtue of ‘Collectedness’ (samadhi)

    [109] 汝等比丘!若攝心者,心則在定;心在定故,能知世間,生滅法相。
    [109] O Bhikkhus, if you guard your mind, so guarded the mind will remain in a state of collectedness. If your minds are in a state of collectedness, you will be able to understand the arising and passing away of the impermanent world.
    [110] 是故汝等,常當精勤,修習諸定;若得定者,心則不散。
    [110] For this reason you should strive constantly to practise the various stages of absorption (修習諸定 jhana). When one of these states of collectedness is reached, the mind no longer wanders.
    [111] 譬如,惜水之家,善治堤塘;
    [111] A disciple who practises (to attain collectedness) is just like an irrigator who properly regulates his dykes.
    [112] 行者亦爾,為智慧水故,善修禪定,令不漏失,是名為:『定!』
    [112] As he guards water, even a small amount, so should you guard the water of wisdom, thereby preventing it from leaking away. Such is the meaning of ‘collectedness.’

    第七品 ✩ 無後有──慧善解脫 The Virtue of Wisdom

    [113] 汝等比丘!若有智慧,則無貪著。
    [113] O Bhikkhus, if you have wisdom, then do not hunger to make a display of it.
    [114] 常自省察,不令有失;是則,於我法中,能得解脫。
    [114] Ever look within yourselves so that you do not fall into any fault. In this way you will be able to attain freedom from (內外結縛 the tangle of) the interior and exterior (內外六處 spheres of senses and sense-objects—ayatana).
    [115] 若不爾者,既非道人、又非白衣,無所名也。
    [115] If you do not accomplish this you cannot be called Dhamma ‘practisers,’ nor yet are you common persons clad in white, so there will be no name to fit you!
    [116] 實智慧者,則是:『度老、病、死海,堅牢船也;
    [116] Wisdom is a firmly-bound raft which will ferry you across the ocean of birth, old age, sickness and death.
    [117] 亦是,無明黑暗,大明燈也;
    [117] Again, it is a brilliant light with which to dispel the black obscurity of ignorance.
    [118] 一切病者,之良藥也;
    [118] It is a good medicine for all who are ill.
    [119] 伐煩惱樹,之利斧也!』
    [119] It is a sharp axe for cutting down the strangling fig-tree of the afflictions.
    [120] 是故汝等,當以:『聞、思、修』慧,而自增益。
    [120] That is why you should, by the hearing-wisdom, thinking-wisdom and development-wisdom increase your benefits (from Dhamma).
    [121] 若人有:『智慧之照!』雖無天眼;而是,明見人也,是名:『智慧!』
    [121] If you have Insight (智慧之照 vipassana) stemming from (發展修慧 development-wisdom,) though your eyes are but fleshly organs you will be able to see clearly (明見 into your own citta 心識). Such is the meaning of ‘wisdom.’

    第八品 ✩ 捨自諦──離戲論 The Virtue of Restraint from Idle Talk

    [122] 汝等比丘!種種戲論,其心則亂,雖復出家,猶未得脫;
    [122] O Bhikkhus, if you indulge in all sorts of idle discussions then your mind will be full of chaotic thoughts, and though you have gone forth to homelessness you will be unable to attain Freedom.
    [123] 是故,比丘!當急捨離,亂心戲論。
    [123] That is why, O Bhikkhus, you should immediately cease from chaotic thoughts and idle discussions.
    [124] 若汝欲得,寂滅樂者;唯當善滅,戲論之患,是名:『不戲論!』
    [124] If you want to attain the happiness of Nibbana, you must eliminate completely the illness of idle discussion. Such is the meaning of ‘restraint from idle talk.’

    ♨ 第四篇 佛不壞信──當自精進 Self Exertion

    [125] 汝等比丘!於諸功德,常當一心,捨諸放逸,如離怨賊。」
    [125] O Bhikkhus, as regards all kinds of virtue, you should ever rid yourselves of laxity, as you would flee from a hateful robber.”
    [126] 大悲世尊,所說利益,皆已究竟!
    [126] That Dhamma which the greatly-compassionate Lord has taught for your benefit is now concluded.
    [127] 「汝等但當,勤而行之:
    [127] “But it is for you to strive diligently to practise this teaching.
    [128] 『若於山間、若空澤中、若在樹下、閒處靜室,念所受法,勿令忘失;
    [128] Whether you live in the mountains or on the great plains, whether you sojourn beneath a tree or in your own secluded dwellings, bear in mind the Dhamma you have received and let none of it be lost.
    [129] 常當自勉,精進修之,無為空死,後致有悔!』
    [129] You should always exert yourselves in practising it diligently, lest you die after wasting a whole lifetime and come to regret it afterwards.
    [130] 我如良醫,知病說藥,服與不服,非醫咎也;
    [130] I am like a good doctor, who, having diagnosed the complaint, prescribes some medicine; but whether it is taken or not, does not depend on the doctor.
    [131] 又如善導,導人善道,聞之不行,非導過也!
    [131] Again, I am like a good guide who points out the best road; but if, having heard of it, (the enquirer 聞之不行) does not take it, the fault is not with the guide.

    ♨ 第五篇 法不壞信──四諦勿疑 On Clearing Up All Doubts

    [132] 『汝等若於,苦等四(聖)諦,有所疑者,可疾問之;毋得懷疑,不求決也!』」
    [132] ‘O Bhikkhus, if you have any doubts regarding the Four Noble Truths; of unsatisfactoriness (苦 dukkha) and the rest, (集 its arising, 滅 its cessation and 道 the practice-path leading to its cessation), you should ask about them at once. Do not harbour such doubts without seeking to resolve them.’”
    [133] 爾時,世尊,如是三唱;人無問者……。所以者何?眾無疑故!
    [133] On that occasion the Lord spoke thus three times; yet there were none who questioned him. And why was that? Because there were none in that assembly (of Bhikkhus 眾無疑故) who harboured any doubts.
    [134] 時阿那律陀,觀察眾心,而白佛言:
    [134] Then the Venerable Anuruddha, seeing what was in the minds of those assembled, respectfully addressed the Buddha thus:
    [135] 「世尊!月可令熱,日可令冷,佛說四(聖)諦,不可令異。
    [135] “Lord, the moon may grow hot and the sun may become cold, but the Four Noble Truths proclaimed by the Lord cannot be otherwise.
    [136] 佛說:『苦(聖)諦實苦,不可令樂;
    [136] The Truth of Dukkha taught by the Lord describes real dukkha which cannot become happiness.
    [137] 集(聖諦)真是因,更無異因;
    [137] The accumulation of desires truly is the cause of the Arising of Dukkha; there can never be a different cause.
    [138] 苦若滅(聖諦)者,即是因滅,因滅故果滅;
    [138] If dukkha is destroyed (苦受的停止 the Cessation of Dukkha), it is because the cause of dukkha has been destroyed, for if the cause is destroyed the result must also be destroyed.
    [139] 滅苦之道(聖諦),實是真道,更無餘道。』
    [139] The Practice path leading to the cessation of dukkha is the true path, nor can there be other.
    [140] 世尊!是諸比丘,於四(聖)諦中,決定無疑!」
    [140] Lord, all these Bhikkhus are certain and have no doubts about the Four Noble Truths.”
    [141] 於此眾中,所作未辦者,見佛滅度,當有悲感。
    [141] In this assembly, those who have not yet done what should be done (i.e. attained Enlightenment 所作未辦), will, on seeing the Lord attain Final Nibbana, certainly feel sorrowful.
    [142] 若有,初入法者,聞佛所說,即皆得度;譬如,夜見電光,即得見道。
    [142] (Among them 初入法者) those who have newly entered upon the Dhamma-way and who have heard what the Lord has (just said), they will all reach Enlightenment (in due course) seeing Dhamma clearly as a flash of lightning in the dark the night.
    [143] 若所作已辦,已度苦海者,但作是念:
    [143] But is there anyone who has done what should be done (being an Arahant 所作已辦), already having crossed over the ocean of dukkha who will think thus:
    [144] 「世尊滅度,一何疾哉?」
    [144] “The Lord has attained Final Nibbana; why was this done so quickly?”
    [145] 阿那律陀,雖說此語:「眾中……皆悉了達,四聖諦義!」
    [145] Although the Venerable Anuruddha had thus spoken these words, and “the whole assembly had penetrated the meaning of the Four Noble Truths”,
    [146] 世尊欲令,此諸大眾,皆得堅固,以大悲心,復為眾說:
    [146] still the Lord wished to strengthen all that great assembly. With a mind of infinite compassion he spoke (again) for their benefit.
    [147] 「汝等比丘!勿懷悲惱。若我,住世一劫,會亦當滅;會而不離,終不可得。
    [147] “O Bhikkhus, do not feel grieved. If I were to live in the world for a whole aeon (一劫 kappa), my association with you would still come to an end, since a meeting with no parting is an impossibility.
    [148] 自利利他,法皆具足;若我久住,更無所益。
    [148] The Dhamma is now complete for each and every one. So even if I were to live longer it would be of no benefit at all.
    [149] 應可度者,若天上人間,皆悉已度;其未度者,皆亦已作,得度因緣。
    [149] Those who were (ready) to cross over, both among the celestials and men, have all without exception attained Enlightenment, while those who have not yet completed their crossing (of the ocean of samsara to the Further Shore or Nibbana) have already produced the necessary causes (to enable them to do so in course of time).
    [150] 自今以後,我諸弟子,展轉行之;則是如來,法身常在,而不滅也。
    [150] From now on, all my disciples must continue to practise (in this way) without ceasing, whereby the body of the Tathagata's Dhamma will be everlasting and indestructible.
    [151] 是故,當知:『世皆無常,會必有離,勿懷憂惱,世相如是!』
    [151] But as to the world, nothing there is eternal, so that all meetings must be followed by partings. Hence, do not harbour grief, for such (impermanence) is the nature of worldly things.
    [152] 『當勤精進,早求解脫;以智慧明,滅諸痴暗!』
    [152] But do strive diligently and quickly seek out freedom. With the light of perfect wisdom destroy the darkness of ignorance,
    [153] 世實危脆,無堅牢者;
    [153] for in this world is nothing strong or enduring.
    [154] 我今得滅,如除惡病。
    [154] Now that I am about to attain final Nibbana, it is like being rid of a terrible sickness.
    [155] 此是,應捨之身,罪惡之物,假名為身,沒在老病、生死大海;
    [155] This body is a thing of which we are indeed well rid, an evil thing falsely going by the name of self and sunk in the ocean birth, disease, old age and death.
    [156] 何有智者,得除滅之,如殺怨賊,而不歡喜?
    [156] Can a wise man do aught but rejoice when he is able to rid himself of it, as others might (be glad), when slaying a hateful robber?
    [157] 『汝等比丘!常當一心,勤求出道!
    [157] O Bhikkhus, you should always exert the mind seeking the way out (of the wandering-on, or samsara).
    [158] 一切世間、動、不動法;皆是,敗壞、不安之相。』
    [158] All forms in the world, without exception, whether moving or non-moving (不動法──四無色禪), are subject to decay and followed by destruction.
    [159] 汝等且止,勿得復語,時將欲過,我欲滅度。
    [159] All of you should stop. It is needless to speak again. Time is passing away. I wish to cross over to Freedom (from existence in this world).
    [160] 是我最後,之所教誨!」
    [160] These are my very last instructions.”
    ~佛遺教經(終) The Buddha's Last Bequest final.

    ★ 南無佛!南無法!南無僧!南無戒!
    Namo Buddha! Namo Dhamma! Namo Sangha! Namo Sikkhapada!

    ★ 迴向法界──
    Love and blessings…

    Willing to take the merit, bless to parents and family;

    Dedicated to all beings, dukkha-sea often for the boat.

    Sadhu! Sadhu! Sadhu!
    Good! Good! Good!

    ★ 巴利佛典,歡迎轉貼!免費流通,很感謝您! ★
    The Pali Tipitaka, Welcome posted! Free circulation, Thank you very much!

    巴利聖典 palitxt@gmail.com ✍

── 佛曆 B.E. 2559.2.8(一)春節 ──


☼ 無寶等佛寶 ☞ 巴利戒本 Pali precepts

2015年8月2日 星期日

☼ 理性與非理性 ☞ 一切漏經 Discourse on All the Cankers

☼ 中部經典 ☞ 根本法門品 (MN 2, 14-28)

2.     一切漏經 Sabbāsavasuttaṃ

    14. Evaṃ me sutaṃ –

    ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā sāvatthiyaṃ viharati jetavane anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme.

Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi – “bhikkhavo”ti. “Bhadante”ti te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etadavoca –

sabbāsavasaṃvarapariyāyaṃ vo, bhikkhave, desessāmi. Taṃ suṇātha, sādhukaṃ manasi karotha, bhāsissāmī”ti.

Evaṃ, bhante”ti kho te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ.

Bhagavā etadavoca –

15. “Jānato ahaṃ, bhikkhave, passato āsavānaṃ khayaṃ vadāmi, no ajānato no apassato.

Kiñca, bhikkhave, jānato kiñca passato āsavānaṃ khayaṃ vadāmi?

Yoniso ca manasikāraṃ ayoniso ca manasikāraṃ.

Ayoniso, bhikkhave, manasikaroto anuppannā ceva āsavā uppajjanti, uppannā ca āsavā pavaḍḍhanti;

yoniso ca kho, bhikkhave, manasikaroto anuppannā ceva āsavā na uppajjanti, uppannā ca āsavā pahīyanti.

    四明覺 sampajañña ➾ ⑴ 有益明覺 sātthaka(律儀勤、防惡)──在生起念頭時,就能在有益及無益之間,作出有益選擇(防護根門);⑵ 合宜明覺 sappāya(斷勤、斷惡)──能夠於適宜與不適宜之間,作出適宜選擇(斷三惡尋);⑶ 行處明覺 gocara(修勤、修善)──行住坐臥,不捨棄念處(禪思主題:有去無回、無去有回、無去無回、有去有回);⑷ 無痴明覺 asammoha(隨護勤、成善)──在行住坐臥等各方面,沒有愚痴、我見(忍受困境)。

    四聖諦義 ➾ ⑴ 律儀勤(防惡)──「苦聖諦」應遍知「防護根門」;⑵ 斷勤(斷惡)──「集聖諦」應斷「三惡尋」;⑶ 修勤(修善)──「道聖諦」應修習「七菩提分」;⑷ 隨護勤(成善)──「滅聖諦」應現證「不淨觀、善之定相」。

    四依 apassenāni ➾ saṅkhāyekaṃ 熟思而 ➀ 受持善法 paṭisevati(修勤──四依法、四聖種);➁ 肯定善法 adhivāseti(隨護勤──忍受困境);➂ 否定惡法 parivajjeti(律儀勤──迴避惡處);➃ 捨棄惡法 vinodeti(斷勤──斷三惡尋)。

    漏盡之因 ➾ ➊ 看見四諦(如理作意);➋ 防護根門(律儀勤);➌ 受持善法(衣食四緣──四依法、四聖種);➍ 認同善法(忍受困境);➎ 避免惡法(迴避惡處);➏ 排除惡法(斷勤──斷三惡尋);➐ 修習道品(修勤──七菩提分)。

    16. “➊ Atthi, bhikkhave, āsavā dassanā pahātabbā, ➋ atthi āsavā saṃvarā pahātabbā, ➌ atthi āsavā paṭisevanā pahātabbā, ➍ atthi āsavā adhivāsanā pahātabbā, ➎ atthi āsavā parivajjanā pahātabbā, ➏ atthi āsavā vinodanā pahātabbā, ➐ atthi āsavā bhāvanā pahātabbā.
    比丘們!➊ 因為看見(四諦真理)而諸漏消失、➋ 因為防護(根門)而諸漏消失、➌ 因為追隨(受持善法)而諸漏消失、➍ 因為認同(肯定善法)而諸漏消失、➎ 因為避免(否定惡法)而諸漏消失、➏ 因為排除(捨棄惡法)而諸漏消失、➐ 因為修習(道品)而諸漏消失。

Dassanā pahātabbāsavā

17. “Katame ca, bhikkhave, āsavā dassanā pahātabbā?

    Idha, bhikkhave, assutavā puthujjano – ariyānaṃ adassāvī ariyadhammassa akovido ariyadhamme avinīto, sappurisānaṃ adassāvī sappurisadhammassa akovido sappurisadhamme avinīto –

manasikaraṇīye dhamme nappajānāti, amanasikaraṇīye dhamme nappajānāti.

    So manasikaraṇīye dhamme appajānanto amanasikaraṇīye dhamme appajānanto, ye dhammā na manasikaraṇīyā, te dhamme manasi karoti, ye dhammā manasikaraṇīyā te dhamme na manasi karoti.

Katame ca, bhikkhave, dhammā na manasikaraṇīyā ye dhamme manasi karoti?

    Yassa, bhikkhave, dhamme manasikaroto anuppanno vā kāmāsavo uppajjati, uppanno vā kāmāsavo pavaḍḍhati; anuppanno vā bhavāsavo uppajjati, uppanno vā bhavāsavo pavaḍḍhati; anuppanno vā avijjāsavo uppajjati, uppanno vā avijjāsavo pavaḍḍhati –

ime dhammā na manasikaraṇīyā ye dhamme manasi karoti.

Katame ca, bhikkhave, dhammā manasikaraṇīyā ye dhamme na manasi karoti?

    Yassa, bhikkhave, dhamme manasikaroto anuppanno vā kāmāsavo na uppajjati, uppanno vā kāmāsavo pahīyati; anuppanno vā bhavāsavo na uppajjati, uppanno vā bhavāsavo pahīyati; anuppanno vā avijjāsavo na uppajjati, uppanno vā avijjāsavo pahīyati –

ime dhammā manasikaraṇīyā ye dhamme na manasi karoti.

    “Tassa amanasikaraṇīyānaṃ dhammānaṃ manasikārā manasikaraṇīyānaṃ dhammānaṃ amanasikārā anuppannā ceva āsavā uppajjanti uppannā ca āsavā pavaḍḍhanti.

18. “So evaṃ ayoniso manasi karoti –

ahosiṃ nu kho ahaṃ atītamaddhānaṃ?

Na nu kho ahosiṃ atītamaddhānaṃ?

Kiṃ nu kho ahosiṃ atītamaddhānaṃ?

Kathaṃ nu kho ahosiṃ atītamaddhānaṃ?

Kiṃ hutvā kiṃ ahosiṃ nu kho ahaṃ atītamaddhānaṃ?

Bhavissāmi nu kho ahaṃ anāgatamaddhānaṃ?

Na nu kho bhavissāmi anāgatamaddhānaṃ?

Kiṃ nu kho bhavissāmi anāgatamaddhānaṃ?

Kathaṃ nu kho bhavissāmi anāgatamaddhānaṃ?

Kiṃ hutvā kiṃ bhavissāmi nu kho ahaṃ anāgatamaddhānan’ti?

Etarahi vā paccuppannamaddhānaṃ [paccuppannamaddhānaṃ ārabbha (syā.)] ajjhattaṃ kathaṃkathī hoti –

ahaṃ nu khosmi?

No nu khosmi?

Kiṃ nu khosmi?

Kathaṃ nu khosmi?

Ayaṃ nu kho satto kuto āgato?

So kuhiṃ gāmī bhavissatī’ti?

19. “Tassa evaṃ ayoniso manasikaroto channaṃ diṭṭhīnaṃ aññatarā diṭṭhi uppajjati.

Atthi me attā’ti vā assa [vāssa (sī. syā. pī.)] saccato thetato diṭṭhi uppajjati;

natthi me attā’ti vā assa saccato thetato diṭṭhi uppajjati;

attanāva attānaṃ sañjānāmī’ti vā assa saccato thetato diṭṭhi uppajjati;
    ⑶ 或者,他生起常見、當作真理:『我思故我在──我因為感知而存在(感知是我)!』

attanāva anattānaṃ sañjānāmī’ti vā assa saccato thetato diṭṭhi uppajjati;
    ⑷ 或者,他生起常見、當作真理:『離思故我在──我因為離開感知而存在(離感知是我)!』

anattanāva attānaṃ sañjānāmī’ti vā assa saccato thetato diṭṭhi uppajjati;
    ⑸ 或者,他生起常見、當作真理:『我思我不在──我因為感知而不存在(感知不是我)!』

atha vā panassa evaṃ diṭṭhi hoti –

yo me ayaṃ attā vado vedeyyo tatra tatra kalyāṇapāpakānaṃ kammānaṃ vipākaṃ paṭisaṃvedeti

so kho pana me ayaṃ attā nicco dhuvo sassato avipariṇāmadhammo sassatisamaṃ tatheva ṭhassatī’ti.

Idaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, diṭṭhigataṃ diṭṭhigahanaṃ diṭṭhikantāraṃ diṭṭhivisūkaṃ diṭṭhivipphanditaṃ diṭṭhisaṃyojanaṃ.

    Diṭṭhisaṃyojanasaṃyutto, bhikkhave, assutavā puthujjano na parimuccati jātiyā jarāya maraṇena sokehi paridevehi dukkhehi domanassehi upāyāsehi; ‘na parimuccati dukkhasmā’ti vadāmi.

    20. “Sutavā ca kho, bhikkhave, ariyasāvako – ariyānaṃ dassāvī ariyadhammassa kovido ariyadhamme suvinīto, sappurisānaṃ dassāvī sappurisadhammassa kovido sappurisadhamme suvinīto –

manasikaraṇīye dhamme pajānāti amanasikaraṇīye dhamme pajānāti.

    So manasikaraṇīye dhamme pajānanto amanasikaraṇīye dhamme pajānanto ye dhammā na manasikaraṇīyā te dhamme na manasi karoti, ye dhammā manasikaraṇīyā te dhamme manasi karoti.

Katame ca, bhikkhave, dhammā na manasikaraṇīyā ye dhamme na manasi karoti?

    Yassa, bhikkhave, dhamme manasikaroto anuppanno vā kāmāsavo uppajjati, uppanno vā kāmāsavo pavaḍḍhati; anuppanno vā bhavāsavo uppajjati, uppanno vā bhavāsavo pavaḍḍhati; anuppanno vā avijjāsavo uppajjati, uppanno vā avijjāsavo pavaḍḍhati –

ime dhammā na manasikaraṇīyā, ye dhamme na manasi karoti.

Katame ca, bhikkhave, dhammā manasikaraṇīyā ye dhamme manasi karoti?

    Yassa, bhikkhave, dhamme manasikaroto anuppanno vā kāmāsavo na uppajjati, uppanno vā kāmāsavo pahīyati; anuppanno vā bhavāsavo na uppajjati, uppanno vā bhavāsavo pahīyati; anuppanno vā avijjāsavo na uppajjati, uppanno vā avijjāsavo pahīyati –

ime dhammā manasikaraṇīyā ye dhamme manasi karoti.

    “Tassa amanasikaraṇīyānaṃ dhammānaṃ amanasikārā manasikaraṇīyānaṃ dhammānaṃ manasikārā anuppannā ceva āsavā na uppajjanti, uppannā ca āsavā pahīyanti

    21. “So ‘idaṃ dukkhan’ti yoniso manasi karoti, ‘ayaṃ dukkhasamudayo’ti yoniso manasi karoti, ‘ayaṃ dukkhanirodho’ti yoniso manasi karoti, ‘ayaṃ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā’ti yoniso manasi karoti.

Tassa evaṃ yoniso manasikaroto tīṇi saṃyojanāni pahīyanti – sakkāyadiṭṭhi, vicikicchā, sīlabbataparāmāso.

Ime vuccanti, bhikkhave, āsavā dassanā pahātabbā.

Saṃvarā pahātabbāsavā

22. “Katame ca, bhikkhave, āsavā saṃvarā pahātabbā?

Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu paṭisaṅkhā yoniso cakkhundriyasaṃvarasaṃvuto viharati.

    Yañhissa, bhikkhave, cakkhundriyasaṃvaraṃ asaṃvutassa viharato uppajjeyyuṃ āsavā vighātapariḷāhā, cakkhundriyasaṃvaraṃ saṃvutassa viharato evaṃsa te āsavā vighātapariḷāhā na honti.

Paṭisaṅkhā yoniso sotindriyasaṃvarasaṃvuto viharati…pe…
    ⑵ 比丘們!此處有比丘,如理思擇,以耳根律儀,防護(律儀勤)而住。

ghānindriyasaṃvarasaṃvuto viharati…pe…

jivhindriyasaṃvarasaṃvuto viharati…pe…

kāyindriyasaṃvarasaṃvuto viharati…pe…

manindriyasaṃvarasaṃvuto viharati.

    Yañhissa, bhikkhave, manindriyasaṃvaraṃ asaṃvutassa viharato uppajjeyyuṃ āsavā vighātapariḷāhā, manindriyasaṃvaraṃ saṃvutassa viharato evaṃsa te āsavā vighātapariḷāhā na honti.

    “Yañhissa, bhikkhave, saṃvaraṃ asaṃvutassa viharato uppajjeyyuṃ āsavā vighātapariḷāhā, saṃvaraṃ saṃvutassa viharato evaṃsa te āsavā vighātapariḷāhā na honti.

Ime vuccanti, bhikkhave, āsavā saṃvarā pahātabbā.

Paṭisevanā pahātabbāsavā

23. “Katame ca, bhikkhave, āsavā paṭisevanā pahātabbā?

Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu paṭisaṅkhā yoniso cīvaraṃ paṭisevati –

    ‘yāvadeva sītassa paṭighātāya, uṇhassa paṭighātāya, ḍaṃsamakasavātātapasarīṃsapa- [siriṃsapa (sī. syā. pī.)] samphassānaṃ paṭighātāya, yāvadeva hirikopīnappaṭicchādanatthaṃ’.

Paṭisaṅkhā yoniso piṇḍapātaṃ paṭisevati –

neva davāya, na madāya, na maṇḍanāya, na vibhūsanāya,

yāvadeva imassa kāyassa ṭhitiyā yāpanāya, vihiṃsūparatiyā, brahmacariyānuggahāya,

    iti purāṇañca vedanaṃ paṭihaṅkhāmi navañca vedanaṃ na uppādessāmi, yātrā ca me bhavissati anavajjatā ca phāsuvihāro ca’ [cāti (sī.)].

Paṭisaṅkhā yoniso senāsanaṃ paṭisevati –

    ‘yāvadeva sītassa paṭighātāya, uṇhassa paṭighātāya, ḍaṃsamakasavātātapasarīṃsapasamphassānaṃ paṭighātāya, yāvadeva utuparissayavinodanapaṭisallānārāmatthaṃ’.

Paṭisaṅkhā yoniso gilānappaccayabhesajjaparikkhāraṃ paṭisevati –

    ‘yāvadeva uppannānaṃ veyyābādhikānaṃ vedanānaṃ paṭighātāya, abyābajjhaparamatāya’ [abyāpajjhaparamatāya (sī. syā. pī.), abyāpajjaparamatāya (ka.)].

Yañhissa, bhikkhave, appaṭisevato uppajjeyyuṃ āsavā vighātapariḷāhā, paṭisevato evaṃsa te āsavā vighātapariḷāhā na honti.

Ime vuccanti, bhikkhave, āsavā paṭisevanā pahātabbā.

Adhivāsanā pahātabbāsavā

24. “Katame ca, bhikkhave, āsavā adhivāsanā pahātabbā?

Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu paṭisaṅkhā yoniso khamo hoti sītassa uṇhassa, jighacchāya pipāsāya.

Ḍaṃsamakasavātātapasarīṃsapasamphassānaṃ, duruttānaṃ durāgatānaṃ vacanapathānaṃ,

    uppannānaṃ sārīrikānaṃ vedanānaṃ dukkhānaṃ tibbānaṃ [tippānaṃ (sī. syā. pī.)] kharānaṃ kaṭukānaṃ asātānaṃ amanāpānaṃ pāṇaharānaṃ adhivāsakajātiko hoti.

Yañhissa, bhikkhave, anadhivāsayato uppajjeyyuṃ āsavā vighātapariḷāhā, adhivāsayato evaṃsa te āsavā vighātapariḷāhā na honti.

Ime vuccanti, bhikkhave, āsavā adhivāsanā pahātabbā.

Parivajjanā pahātabbāsavā

25. “Katame ca, bhikkhave, āsavā parivajjanā pahātabbā?

Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu paṭisaṅkhā yoniso

caṇḍaṃ hatthiṃ parivajjeti, caṇḍaṃ assaṃ parivajjeti, caṇḍaṃ goṇaṃ parivajjeti, caṇḍaṃ kukkuraṃ parivajjeti,

ahiṃ khāṇuṃ kaṇṭakaṭṭhānaṃ sobbhaṃ papātaṃ candanikaṃ oḷigallaṃ.

Yathārūpe anāsane nisinnaṃ yathārūpe agocare carantaṃ yathārūpe pāpake mitte bhajantaṃ

viññū sabrahmacārī pāpakesu ṭhānesu okappeyyuṃ,

so tañca anāsanaṃ tañca agocaraṃ te ca pāpake mitte paṭisaṅkhā yoniso parivajjeti.

Yañhissa, bhikkhave, aparivajjayato uppajjeyyuṃ āsavā vighātapariḷāhā, parivajjayato evaṃsa te āsavā vighātapariḷāhā na honti.

Ime vuccanti, bhikkhave, āsavā parivajjanā pahātabbā.

Vinodanā pahātabbāsavā

26. “Katame ca, bhikkhave, āsavā vinodanā pahātabbā?

Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu paṭisaṅkhā yoniso

uppannaṃ kāmavitakkaṃ nādhivāseti pajahati vinodeti byantīkaroti anabhāvaṃ gameti,

uppannaṃ byāpādavitakkaṃ…pe…

uppannaṃ vihiṃsāvitakkaṃ…pe…

uppannuppanne pāpake akusale dhamme nādhivāseti pajahati vinodeti byantīkaroti anabhāvaṃ gameti.

Yañhissa, bhikkhave, avinodayato uppajjeyyuṃ āsavā vighātapariḷāhā, vinodayato evaṃsa te āsavā vighātapariḷāhā na honti.

Ime vuccanti, bhikkhave, āsavā vinodanā pahātabbā.

Bhāvanā pahātabbāsavā

27. “Katame ca, bhikkhave, āsavā bhāvanā pahātabbā?

Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu paṭisaṅkhā yoniso satisambojjhaṅgaṃ bhāveti vivekanissitaṃ virāganissitaṃ nirodhanissitaṃ vossaggapariṇāmiṃ;
    ⑴ 比丘們!此處有比丘,如理思擇,依遠離、依離貪、依滅盡、向於捨,以修習(發展、培養)『遍念菩提分』;

paṭisaṅkhā yoniso dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgaṃ bhāveti…pe…
    ⑵ 如理思擇,依遠離、依離貪、依滅盡、向於捨,以修習(發展、培養)『遍擇法菩提分』;

vīriyasambojjhaṅgaṃ bhāveti…
    ⑶ 如理思擇,依遠離、依離貪、依滅盡、向於捨,以修習(發展、培養)『遍精進菩提分』;

pītisambojjhaṅgaṃ bhāveti…
    ⑷ 如理思擇,依遠離、依離貪、依滅盡、向於捨,以修習(發展、培養)『遍喜菩提分』;

passaddhisambojjhaṅgaṃ bhāveti…
    ⑸ 如理思擇,依遠離、依離貪、依滅盡、向於捨,以修習(發展、培養)『遍輕安菩提分』;

samādhisambojjhaṅgaṃ bhāveti…
    ⑹ 如理思擇,依遠離、依離貪、依滅盡、向於捨,以修習(發展、培養)『遍定菩提分』;

upekkhāsambojjhaṅgaṃ bhāveti vivekanissitaṃ virāganissitaṃ nirodhanissitaṃ vossaggapariṇāmiṃ.
    ⑺ 如理思擇,依遠離、依離貪、依滅盡、向於捨,以修習(發展、培養)『遍捨菩提分』。

Yañhissa, bhikkhave, abhāvayato uppajjeyyuṃ āsavā vighātapariḷāhā, bhāvayato evaṃsa te āsavā vighātapariḷāhā na honti.

Ime vuccanti, bhikkhave, āsavā bhāvanā pahātabbā.

28. “Yato kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno ye āsavā dassanā pahātabbā te dassanā pahīnā honti,

ye āsavā saṃvarā pahātabbā te saṃvarā pahīnā honti,
    ➋ 凡是因為防護(根門──律儀勤),而諸(煩惱)漏流會消失者;則依防護(根門──律儀勤)而諸(煩惱)漏流消失!

ye āsavā paṭisevanā pahātabbā te paṭisevanā pahīnā honti,
    ➌ 凡是因為追隨(受持善法──四依法、四聖種),而諸(煩惱)漏流會消失者;則依追隨(受持善法──四依法、四聖種)而諸(煩惱)漏流消失!

ye āsavā adhivāsanā pahātabbā te adhivāsanā pahīnā honti,
    ➍ 凡是因為認同(肯定善法──忍受困境),而諸(煩惱)漏流會消失者;則依認同(肯定善法──忍受困境)而諸(煩惱)漏流消失!

ye āsavā parivajjanā pahātabbā te parivajjanā pahīnā honti,
    ➎ 凡是因為避免(否定惡法──迴避惡處),而諸(煩惱)漏流會消失者;則依避免(否定惡法──迴避惡處)而諸(煩惱)漏流消失!

ye āsavā vinodanā pahātabbā te vinodanā pahīnā honti,
    ➏ 凡是因為排除(捨棄惡法──斷三惡尋),而諸(煩惱)漏流會消失者;則依排除(捨棄惡法──斷三惡尋)而諸(煩惱)漏流消失!

ye āsavā bhāvanā pahātabbā te bhāvanā pahīnā honti;
    ➐ 凡是因為修習(道品──七菩提分),而諸(煩惱)漏流會消失者;則依修習(道品──七菩提分)而諸(煩惱)漏流消失!

ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave –

bhikkhu sabbāsavasaṃvarasaṃvuto viharati,

acchecchi [acchejji (ka.)] taṇhaṃ, vivattayi [vāvattayi (sī. pī.)] saṃyojanaṃ,

    sammā mānābhisamayā antamakāsi dukkhassā’”ti.Idamavoca bhagavā.
息滅慢心、正盡苦邊。』」 世尊如此說完。

    Attamanā te bhikkhū bhagavato bhāsitaṃ abhinandunti.

    Sabbāsavasuttaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ dutiyaṃ.
    一切漏經 ~根本法門品‧第二經終

    ~《中部經典‧根本法門品‧Sabbāsavasutta 一切漏經(MN 2, 14-28)

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